April 26 - 28, 2023 - Pavia, Italy

19th IEEE International Conference on
Factory Communication Systems (WFCS 2023)

WFCS 2024 website

WFCS 2023 is in Pavia, Italy!

After virtually hosting the 2022 edition, Pavia again proposes itself as the venue for the conference, which is supported by IEEE and IES and led by the Technical Committee on Factory Automation. The event is organized by the University of Pavia and by the Institute Industrial IT (inIT) of the Technische Hochschule OWL in Lemgo, Germany.

WFCS is the largest IEEE conference especially dedicated to communications for (industrial) automation systems. Its main aim is to provide a forum for researchers, developers and practitioners to review and discuss most recent trends in the area and share innovative research directions.

The next edition of WFCS (WFCS 2024) will be in Toulouse, France.



>>> Submit your paper


The Factory Communication research area is becoming increasingly relevant in last years, with communication playing a fundamental role in many automation systems. New generation technologies, such as 5G/6G, WiFi6/WiFi7, TSN, or OPC UA, open the door to a variety of application possibilities, from general automation to IIoT. On the other hand, due to the high variety of available communication solutions, and the fact that different technologies have usually to be combined together in order to satisfy application requirements, industrial communication systems become highly complex and heterogenous. This condition creates several new challenges that need to be tackled to fully exploit the potential of available communication solutions (including subjects related to network management, traffic optimization, virtualization, energy efficiency, and many others).

The 19th edition of WFCS will focus on all forms of communication supporting automation within factories and in other contexts, especially considering recent developments. WFCS is the largest IEEE conference that is especially dedicated to communication for (industrial) automation systems and aims to provide a forum for researchers, developers and practitioners to review and discuss recent trends in the area and share innovative research directions.

The conference, supported by the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) and led by the Technical Committee on Factory Automation (TCFA), will be hosted by the University of Pavia (Italy) in collaboration with the Institute Industrial IT (inIT) of the Technische Hochschule OWL in Lemgo, Germany.

Pavia is located in south-western Lombardy (northern Italy, 35 kilometers - 22 miles - south of Milan). The University of Pavia is one of the world’s oldest academic institutions, with its foundations existing as early as the 9th Century.


The conference mainly focuses on: Communication Systems and Technologies; Protocols and Standards for Networked Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems; Real-time, Safety, Security and Maintenance of Automation Systems and Networks; applying Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to enhance and Communication Technologies for Industry 4.0; Low-power and Green Communication in Industry; recent advances in research domains with similar communication requirements.

Paper submission

Regular and Special Session Papers: up to 8 double-column pages, following the IEEE conference template.
Work-in-Progress (WiP) Papers: up to 4 double-column pages, following the IEEE conference template.

All accepted regular, special session, and WiP papers that will be presented at the conference will be published in IEEE proceedings and will appear in IEEE Xplore.

   (deadlines below)

Submission of the final versions of papers

The final versions of papers, prepared according to the IEEE conference template, must be checked to verify that they comply with the IEEE rules. Please use the IEEE PDF eXpress tool to check that everything is fine. Accepted papers that fail this check or exceed the allowed number of pages will NOT be included in the WFCS 2023 conference proceedings.
First-time users must create an account, providing 57264X as a Conference ID.

Important dates

Special session proposals:

Deadline: December 10th, 2022
Notifications: December 17th, 2022

Regular and special session submissions:

Deadline: January 9th February 3rd, 2023
Notifications: February 10th February 28th, 2023
Final versions: March 1st March 15th, 2023

Work in Progress submissions:

Deadline: February 24th March 10th, 2023
Notifications: March 17th March 27th, 2023
Final versions: April 4th April 7th, 2023



WiP Chairs

Aamir Mahmood
(Mid Sweden University, Sweden)
Henning Trsek
(inIT / TH-OWL, Germany)

Publication Chairs

Frank Golatowski
(University of Rostock, Germany)
Sampath Kumar Veera Ragavan
(Monash University, Malaysia Campus, Malaysia)

Publicity Chairs

Maxim Friesen
(InIT / TH-OWL, Germany)
Antonino Nocera
(University of Pavia, Italy)

Special Sessions Chairs

Manuel Barranco
(University of the Balearic Islands, Spain)
Luca Leonardi
(University of Catania, Italy)

Industry Chairs

Francesco Benzi
(University of Pavia, Italy)
David Lou
(Huawei Tech. Dusseldorf, Germany)
Pang Zhibo
(ABB Corp. Research and KTH, Sweden)

Finance Chair

Ahlem Mifdaoui
(University of Toulouse, France)

Local/Technical Support

Gianluca Defelici
(University of Pavia, Italy)

Technical Program Committee

The Technical Program Committee will be available soon.
The Technical Program Committee includes
65 highly qualified members


Conference schedule


3-day schedule

Wednesday, April 26th

Time Event
08:30 - 09:30 Registration is open
09:30 - 10:30 Opening Session
(Chairs: Tullio Facchinetti, Lukasz Wisniewski)
10:30 - 11:30 Keynote 1: 5G and Beyond for Future Factory Networks, Roberto Verdone
(Chair: Francesco Benzi)
11:30 - 11:50 Coffee Break
11:50 - 13:30 Regular Session 1 : Wireless Industrial Networks
(Chairs: Francois Quitin, Emiliano Sisinni)

Time Paper Title Authors
11:50 To Update or not: Dynamic Traffic Classification for High Priority Traffic in Wireless TSN Jetmir Haxhibeqiri, Xianjun Jiao, Pablo Avila Campos, Ingrid Moerman, Jeroen Hoebeke
12:15 PSSS Design for Efficient Equalization Elias L. Peter, Wolfgang Endemann, Rüdiger Kays
12:40 Comparison and Analysis of Ricean K-Factor Estimators in Industrial Wireless Channels Alvaro A. M. de Medeiro, Victor Cionca
13:05 Can Embedded Real-Time Linux System Effectively Support Multipath Transmission? An Experimental Study Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zheng, Shangpeng Sun, Mikael Gidlund, Johan Åkerberg

13:30 - 14:30 Lunch
14:30 - 16:35 Special Session 1 : Advances in Security and Safety of Industrial Networked Infrastructures
(Chairs: Hans-Peter Bernhard, Lucia Seno)

Time Paper Title Authors
14:30 Attacker Localization with Machine Learning in RS-485 Industrial Control Networks Hideya Ochiai, Md Delwar Hossain, Youki Kadobayashi, Hiroshi Esaki
14:55 Electricity Theft Detection for Smart Homes with Knowledge-Based Synthetic Attack Data Olufemi A. Abraham, Hideya Ochiai, Md Delwar Hossain, Yuzo Taenaka, Youki Kadobayashi
15:20 You Are What You Attack: Breaking the Cryptographically Protected S7 Protocol Wael Alsabbagh, Peter Langendörfer
15:45 Static analysis of packet forwarding and filtering configurations in industrial networks Manuel Cheminod, Lucia Seno
16:10 Safety and Security Requirements in AAS Integration: Use Case Demonstration Ali M.Hosseini, Thilo Sauter, Wolfgang Kastner

16:35 - 16:55 Coffee Break
17:30 - Welcome reception

Thursday, April 27th

Time Event
09:15 - 10:15 Keynote 2: We want to! We need to! Communicating in IEC 61499-based Control Systems, Alois Zoitl
(Chair: David Lou)
10:15 - 11:00 Work-in-Progress Session (Chair: Emiliano Sisinni)

Time Paper Title Authors
10:15 Assessment of time performance of lightweight virtualization for edge computing applications Emiliano Sisinni, Paolo Bellagente, Alessandro Depari, Alessandra Flammini, Massimiliano Gaffurini, Marco Pasetti, Stefano Rinaldi, Paolo Ferrari
10:20 Fake PLC in the cloud, we thought the attackers believed that: How ICS honeypot deception gets impacted by cloud deployments? Stanislava Ivanova, Naghmeh Moradpoor
10:25 Private 5G networks for cyber-physical control applications in Vertical domains Luis M. Bartolín-Arnau, Jose Vera-Pérez, Victor M. Sempere-Payá, Javier Silvestre-Blanes
10:30 A wireless transceiver for Control Area Networks: proof-of-concept implementation Francois Quitin, Michel Osée
10:35 Cost of Robustness of independent WCRT analysis for CBS of Ethernet AVB using eligible intervals Reinder J. Bril, Hamid Hassani, Pieter J. L. Cuijpers, Geoffrey Nelissen
10:40 Deterministic Channel Access Using MU EDCA in OFDMA-based Wi-Fi Networks Ben Schneider, Chitiphat Chongaroonngamsaeng, Bjoern Richerzhagen, Michael Bahr, Georg Carle
10:45 Seamless Redundancy for High Reliability Wi-Fi Gianluca Cena, Stefano Scanzio, Dave Cavalcanti, Valerio Frascolla
10:50 Empirical Delay and Doppler Profiles for Industrial Wireless Channel Models Dreyelian Morejon, Eneko Iradier, Pablo Angueira, Jon Montalban

11:00 - 11:25 Coffee Break (discussion of WiP papers)
11:25 - 13:30 Special Session 2 : Technologies, Platforms, and Standardization for Industrial Wireless Systems Performance Evaluation
(Chairs: Richard Candell, Kang Lee)

Time Paper Title Authors
11:25 Scheduling for Time-Critical Applications Utilizing TCP in Software-Based 802.1Qbv Wireless TSN Richard Candell, Karl Montgomery, Mohamed Kashef (Hany), Susruth Sudhakaran, Dave Cavalcanti
11:50 Zero-Delay Roaming for Mobile Robots enabled by Wireless TSN Redundancy Susruth Sudhakaran, Ibrahim Ali, Mark Eisen, Javier Perez-Ramirez, Cosmin Cazan, Valerio Frascolla, Dave Cavalcanti
12:15 Predicting Wireless Channel Quality by means of Moving Averages and Regression Models Gabriele Formis, Stefano Scanzio, Gianluca Cena, Adriano Valenzano
12:40 A Cooperation-Free Resource Allocation Algorithm Enhanced by Reinforcement Learning for Coexisting IIoTs Jialin Zhang, Wei Liang, Bo Yang, Huaguang Shi, Qi Wang, Zhibo Pang
13:05 60 GHz mmWave Signal Propagation Characterization in Workshop and Steel Industry Joseba Osa, Niclas Bjorsell, Per Angskog, Inaki Val, Mikel Mendicute

13:30 - 14:30 Lunch
14:30 - 16:10 Regular Session 2 : High Performance Wired Industrial Networks
(Chairs: Maliosz Markosz, Markus Rentschler)

Time Paper Title Authors
14:30 Composite CAN XL-Ethernet Networks for Next-Gen Automotive and Automation Systems Gianluca Cena, Stefano Scanzio, Adriano Valenzano
14:55 Buffer Management for TSN-Enabled End Stations Christoph Lehr, Patrick Denzler, Thomas Fruhwirth, Wolfgang Kastner
15:20 TSN Scheduler Benchmarking Eike Schweissguth, David Hellmanns, Stefan Mehner, Jonathan Falk, Helge Parzyjegla, Peter Danielis, Oliver Hohlfeld, Gero Mühl, Dirk Timmermann
15:45 Deterministic Local Cloud for Industrial Applications Markosz Maliosz, István Moldován, Miklós Máté, Csaba Simon, János Harmatos

16:10 - 16:30 Coffee Break
20:00 - Conference dinner

Friday, April 28th

Time Event
09:00 - 10:00 Keynote 3: Is it just yet another fieldbus? Ethernet conquers instrumentation in process industry, Tilo Merlin
(Chair: Zhibo Pang)
10:00 - 11:00 Industrial Panel: New generation communications for new generation automation systems
Moderator: Zhibo Pang
Panelists: Francesco Benzi, Zhe Lou, Tilo Merlin, Gergely Seres, Alois Zoitl
11:00 - 11:25 Coffee Break
11:25 - 13:30 Regular Session 3 : Management and Communication in Distributed Systems
(Chairs: Luis Almeida, Gianluca Cena)

Time Paper Title Authors
11:25 embServe: Embedded Services for Constrained Devices Joao Oliveira, Filipe Sousa, Luıs Almeida
11:50 A Safety and Security Requirements Management Methodology in Reconfigurable Collaborative Human-Robot Application Ali M.Hosseini, Clara Fischer, Mukund Bhole, Wolfgang Kastner, Thilo Sauter, Sebastian Schlund
12:15 Design and Performance Evaluation of a Standalone MQTT for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) Broker Michael Nast, Frank Golatowski, Dirk Timmermann
12:40 End-to-End Response Time Analysis for RT-MQTT: Trajectory Approach versus Holistic Approach Ehsan Shahri, Paulo Pedreiras, Luis Almeida
13:05 A Proposal for OPC UA Companion Specification for IEC 61499 based Control Application Mainak Majumder, Alois Zoitl

13:30 - 14:30 Lunch
14:30 - 16:10 Regular Session 4
(Chairs: Javier Silvestre Blanes, Jetmir Haxhibeqiri)

Time Paper Title Authors
14:30 Managing 5G Non-Public Networks from Industrial Automation Systems Abdulkadir Karaagac, Ognjen Dobrijevic, Dirk Schulz, Gergely Seres, Ala Nazari, Hubert Przybysz, Joachim Sachs
14:55 Evaluation of Control-to-Control Communication in Industrial 5G Network David Ginthoer, Davit Harutyunyan
15:20 Authenticated UWB-based Positioning of Passive Drones Mahyar Shariat, Wolfgang Kastner
15:45 Bayesian measurement noise estimation in Ultra Wide Band systems for clock synchronization Gergely Hollosi

16:30 - 17:00 Closing Session
(Chairs: Tullio Facchinetti, Lukasz Wisniewski, Marco Porta, Stefano Scanzio)

Printable program (PDF format)

Instructions for regular papers

If you are an author of a regular paper, you will have 20 minutes for presenting your work and five minutes for answering possible questions.

Instructions for WiP papers

If you are an author of a work in progress (WiP) paper, you are expected to present your scientific results as follows:

  • As per the conference schedule, kindly prepare a 5 minute presentation of your paper. A computer for the presentation will be provided in the lecture hall. Please provide your presentation to the technicians on a USB flash drive 20 minutes before your session starts and report to the session chair. The following file formats are supported: .pptx and .pdf.
  • Furthermore, please prepare a poster in A2 format (no format change is permitted). There are no restrictions on the layout of the poster. You are expected to set up the poster on the movable walls in the auditorium foyer a few minutes before your session starts, during the Coffee Break. Thereafter, you are required to be available for discussion at your poster.

Keynote speakers (in conjunction with the IEEE IES Industry Forum)

Tilo Merlin
(Senior Principal Engineer, Platform Manager Instrumentation - ABB, Process Automation, Measurement & Analytics, Germany)
Title: Is it just yet another fieldbus? Ethernet conquers instrumentation in process industry
Short bio

Tilo Merlin is Senior Principal Engineer at ABB Measurement & Analytics division with business area process automation. In his role as platform manager for instrumentation, he oversees industrial communication from early technology development up to market introduction of smart field instruments for chemical industry, oil & gas, water/waste water and applications in power generation. He started as embedded software developer for temperature and interface products and was one of the known faces behind fieldbus technology in early 2000. He stands behind many successful ABB products, such as first fully redundant and digital remote I/O system for installation in hazardous area zone 1, first head mounted temperature transmitter with Foundation Fieldbus communication, first industrial autonomous wireless sensor powered by thermal energy harvesting.

LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/tilo-merlin-53157b13/.


Ethernet is established in factory automation, in particular motion applications, since many years. Anyway, in process industry, Ethernet stops on the level of controllers and distributed control system. Since invention of APL (advanced physical layer) as one branch of the SPE family of standards (single pair Ethernet), a run of Ethernet in the field has started. Why was APL such an important step and what will and could Ethernet change on sensor/actor level in process industry? What are characteristics of process industry and where it goes in line with nature of Ethernet - and internet connectivity, TCP/IP networks, IoT, etc. - and where not? Still more than 10 years after Stuxnet is cyber security not everywhere adequately considered or systems could become safe - but unusable.

Roberto Verdone
(Full professor, University of Bologna & CNIT/WiLab, Italy)
Title: 5G and Beyond for Future Factory Networks
Short bio

Since 2001 Roberto Verdone is Full Professor in Telecommunications at the University of Bologna. In 2001 he founded a research group (Radio Networks) working on i) Radio Resource Management for mobile systems, ii) MAC, routing and topology of wireless sensor networks, iii) architectures and technologies for the IoT. In particular, he is currently active in the field of the Industrial IoT, 5G and B5G systems using THz communications, and UAV-aided mobile radio networks. Since 2020 he is Director of the CNIT National Laboratory of Wireless Communications, WiLab, participated by about 110 researchers. Since 2021 he is also co-Director of the WiLab-Huawei Joint Innovation Center on “Intelligent IoT for 6G”. He published about 200 research papers, on IEEE journals/conferences.

LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/roberto-verdone/.


Industrial applications set a number of challenging requirements to Factory Networks in terms of latency, reliability, throughput, security and other KPIs. Some of them can be fulfilled by 5G solutions, others are too stringent and require more advanced technologies that most probably will be part of the 6G ecosystem. This speech will start analysing the requirements of some relevant industrial applications and use cases, and will discuss how they can be met by 5G solutions. Then, the expected characteristics of 6G will be anticipated, which can be of support to the development of factory networks. The speech will alternate conceptual technical discussions supported by numerical analyses, and pragmatic considerations based on on-field experience. The visions of relevant projects on industrial networks conducted under EU or private funding contexts will be presented.

Alois Zoitl
(Full professor, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
Title: We want to! We need to! Communicating in IEC 61499-based Control Systems
Short bio

Alois Zoitl holds a PhD degree in Electrical Engineering with focus on dynamic reconfiguration of real-time con-strained control applications and a Master degree in Electrical Engineering with the focus on distributed industrial automation systems from Vienna University of Technology. Currently he is a Professor for cyber-physical systems for engineering and production at the Johannes Kepler University, Linz. Before that he was the scientific research group leader for Industrial Automation at the research institute fortiss in Munich, Germany. Before that he was the head of the research field Distributed Intelligent Automation Systems (Odo Struger Laboratory) at the Auto-mation and Control Institute (ACIN), Vienna University of Technology. He is co-author of more than 220 publications (3 books, 8 book chapters, 24 journal articles) and the co-inventor of 4 patents in the mentioned areas.

Alois Zoitl conducted and lead several industry funded R&D projects as well as coordinated and participated in several public funded (national as well as European) R&D projects. He is a founding member of the open source initiatives Eclipse 4diac, providing a complete IEC 61499 solution, and OpENer. Furthermore, he is a senior member of the IEEE and since 2009 he is an active member of the IEC SC65B/WG15 for the distributed automation standard IEC 61499. He was named convenor of the group in May 2015.

LinkedIn profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/alois-zoitl-a9b05725/.


The importance of software for the functioning of machines and systems is growing steadily. The need for networking among each other as well as with higher-level systems (keyword IoT) is also increasing. This leads to a constantly increasing development effort and the associated costs.

This calls for new methods that allow the increasing software development effort to be tamed. One method is IEC 61499, which was created to simplify and improve the development of control programs for distributed automation systems. IEC 61499 defines a domain-specific modeling language that offers solutions for the demands of distributed functionality, adaptivity and improved software quality in control technology. This is not a new language, but a consistent extension of the existing IEC 61131-3. Recent studies have shown that IEC 61499 can indeed help to reduce development effort.

However uptake of IEC 61499 is still slow. One reason for this is that while IEC 61499 was designed with distribution and communication as first-class citizens in mind, it requires completely different approaches to communication than classical factory communication systems.

This talk will provide an overview of IEC 61499 and how it can be used to develop distributed control applications. It will be shown which features of IEC 61499 can help to reduce the development effort. Based on this, the communication requirements of IEC 61499-based systems will be examined and common misconceptions will be clarified. The presentation concludes with open research topics for the WFCS community with respect to future communication systems for distributed and adaptive production systems based on IEC 61499.

Panel Discussion of IEEE IES Industry Forum

Theme: New generation communications for new generation automation systems
Moderator: Zhibo Pang (ABB and KTH, Sweden)
Panelists: Francesco Benzi (University of Pavia, Italy), Zhe Lou (Huawei, Germany), Tilo Merlin (ABB Germany), Gergely Seres (Ericsson Budapest, Hungary), Alois Zoitl (Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)


Fees (early registration deadline: April 3rd)

  • Full, IES member - early: € 700
  • Full, IEEE member (non-IES) - early: € 750
  • Full, non-member - early: € 875
  • Student, IEEE member - early: € 340
  • Student, non-member - early: € 390
  • Full, IES member - late: € 800
  • Full, IEEE member (non-IES) - late: € 850
  • Full, non-member - late: € 975
  • Student, IEEE member - late: € 415
  • Student, non-member - late: € 490

Important information

  • The meeting fee includes 22% VAT and covers access to technical sessions, coffee breaks, buffet lunches, welcome cocktail on April 26th, and social dinner on April 27th. Any additional guests can participate in the welcome cocktail and/or in the social dinner at a cost of, respectively, € 30 and € 60 (please contact wfcs23@pragmacongressi.it)
  • Registration is due for all participants (both presenters and attendees only). Payment is possible by credit card or bank transfer
  • Students must upload a valid proof of their student status
  • Italian public institutions must contact wfcs23@pragmacongressi.it before paying the fee
  • Cancellation policy: for cancellations up to April 14th, full refund minus an administrative cost for the transaction. From April 15th, no refund. In all other cases, the financial responsibilities of the participants remain fully effective
  • Registration invoice: registration is confirmed only upon payment receipt. Invoice will be sent after payment by e-mail, prior to the conference (please fill in the invoicing details during the registration procedure) - it is not available on Conftool. Official document is issued by Pragma Congressi srl, Corso Mazzini 14 - 27100 Pavia, VAT IT02031910181. If you have any special requests, please contact wfcs23@pragmacongressi.it
  • Invoice to individuals who do not hold an Italian fiscal code: we ask your date and place of birth as for Italian law it is mandatory to have these details in order to issue an invoice (they will not appear on the document but they must be kept)



Pavia is a town of south-western Lombardy, in northern Italy (35 kilometers - 22 miles - south of Milan).

The University of Pavia is one of the world’s oldest academic institutions, with its foundations existing as early as the 9th Century. Enlarged and renovated by the Duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, it became the University of the Duchy, officially established as a Studium Generale by Emperor Charles IV in 1361.

The conference will be hosted by the Ctrl+Alt Museum, a museum of "retrocomputing" recently created to promote and disseminate the history of technology.

Address: Via Riviera, 39, 27100 - Pavia - PV (see on Google Maps)
The Museum is located at around 5 minutes walking distance from the train station.

Annotated map of the area (opens in a new window)

Some photos of the museum

ComPVter Museum
ComPVter Museum
ComPVter Museum


The conference venue can be easily reached on foot from all hotels (or, alternatively, by bus).


For more information, please contact the general chairs Tullio Facchinetti and Lukasz Wisniewski.